How To Prevent High Blood Pressure

When blood passes through the walls of blood vessels, it exerts pressure. This pressure is crucial, therefore any changes from the normal range can cause problems for the body.

The range of normal blood pressure of a healthy human is between 120/80mmHg and 140/80 mmHg. It is usually represented by two numbers, first is the systolic pressure, the pressure exerted by the blood when the heart contracts and the diastolic pressure which is due to the relaxation of the heart. 


Blood pressure of more than 140/90mmHg is considered hypertension.1 There are two types of hypertension, namely primary, idiopathic or essential hypertension and secondary hypertension. 

Primary hypertension

The presence of secondary causes such as renovascular disorders cannot be found in the case of primary hypertension, which is also called idiopathic hypertension. The cause of essential hypertension is unknown as we have little information regarding genetic variation and gene expression. It might be due to the modification of lifestyle or because of the history of the previous generations.1

Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension is less common and occurs only in 10% of people with high blood pressure. It is mainly caused as a result of other medical conditions like kidney disorders, Thyroid and parathyroid related problems, dysfunction of adrenal gland, etc.2

Hypertension is classified into 2 stages. Stage 1 includes patients with 140 to 159mmHg of systolic pressure and 90 to 99 mmHg of diastolic pressure. Stage 2 includes patients with more than 160mmHg of systolic pressure and more than 100mmHg for diastolic pressure.

The inadequate control of blood pressure in hypertensive patients remains the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), kidney diseases and premature mortality. 

The seeds of high blood pressure are rooted in high-calorie intake, alcohol consumption, obesity, excessive intake of dietary sodium and remaining in a physically inactive state.

How can you know that you have hypertension?

Usually, there are no warning signs to indicate hypertension, and many people may be unaware that they experience it. Measuring blood pressure is the only way to check whether the patient has hypertension. The elevation of systolic pressure can lead to serious health conditions such as stroke, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular diseases and progressive loss of renal function.

Treatment of hypertension

The main objective of treatment is to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 

Hypertension can be treated by taking necessary actions to prevent its root causes. It can also be managed by certain lifestyle and diet modifications which will maintain the levels of blood pressure within the normal range.

Therapy includes treating all the identifiable risk factors such as smoking, managing clinical conditions which are associated with the risk factors, etc. The best way to prevent hypertension is to adopt a healthy lifestyle that would decrease blood pressure and improve the efficacy of antihypertensive medications that would ultimately reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Patients with prehypertension levels can easily manage blood pressure by lifestyle modifications and it can be easily brought back to a normal level without requiring medications.

Smoking may interact with the antihypertensive drug and may reduce its efficacy, therefore, cessation of smoking is the most powerful lifestyle measure to be followed in order to prevent and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders.

People with a sedentary lifestyle are recommended to engage in cardio exercises on a regular basis. Heavy weight lifting exercises or high-intensity workouts should be avoided.

Hypertensive patients are advised to reduce their dietary sodium intake, specifically salt intake. They should avoid salty foods which are preprocessed and are recommended to consume foods containing more potassium. This is achieved by consuming fruits and vegetables which contain increased amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium.

They are also advised to reduce the intake of cholesterol and saturated fats in order to prevent hyperlipidemia which may associate with hypertension and cause chronic cardiovascular disorders.

Lack of sleep and sleep deprivation may enhance the occurrence of hypertension followed by its prevalence. Sleep influences the autonomic nervous system that may have an effect on blood pressure. Sleep disorders may increase the risk of hypertension.

While sleeping, normally there is a decrease in blood pressure and is called “Nocturnal Dipping”. Lack of nocturnal dipping is a very powerful indicator of cardiovascular risk. So, it is necessary to have an adequate amount of sleep to manage blood pressure.3

Hypertension is not a disease, but a disorder that can elevate the risk of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. We can maintain the levels of blood pressure in a normal range by properly adhering to positive lifestyle modifications and therapies which can ultimately prevent more severe cardiovascular complications.


  1. CDC. High blood pressure symptoms, causes, and problems | cdc. Gov [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 16]. Available from:
  2. Ohkubo T, Hozawa A, Nagai K, Kikuya M, Tsuji I, Ito S, et al. Prediction of stroke by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring versus screening blood pressure measurements in a general population: the Ohasama study. J Hypertens. 2000 Jul;18(7):847–54.
  3. Pedrosa RP, Drager LF, Gonzaga CC, Sousa MG, de Paula LKG, Amaro ACS, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea: the most common secondary cause of hypertension associated with resistant hypertension. Hypertension. 2011 Nov;58(5):811–7.

Pavithra Saravanan

Pharmacist, MA Pharmacy, The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, India
Pavithra Saravanan is a pharmaceutical professional and member in TOPRA. She completed her masters in pharmacy in Pharmaceutics department from The Tamilnadu Dr.M.G.R.Medical University, India. Pavithra has 2 years experience in Drug Regulatory Affairs, is equipped with knowledge in Clinical Data Management and Drug Safety and is currently working in the United Kingdom. presents all health information in line with our terms and conditions. It is essential to understand that the medical information available on our platform is not intended to substitute the relationship between a patient and their physician or doctor, as well as any medical guidance they offer. Always consult with a healthcare professional before making any decisions based on the information found on our website.
Klarity is a citizen-centric health data management platform that enables citizens to securely access, control and share their own health data. Klarity Health Library aims to provide clear and evidence-based health and wellness related informative articles. 
Klarity / Managed Self Ltd
Alum House
5 Alum Chine Road
Westbourne Bournemouth BH4 8DT
VAT Number: 362 5758 74
Company Number: 10696687

Phone Number:

 +44 20 3239 9818