Vitamins For Fertility Male

  • Aleena Rajan Master Of Public Health (MPH) -University of Wolverhampton


Male fertility plays a crucial role in reproductive health since it directly influences a couple's capacity to conceive and have children. Successful fertilisation requires healthy sperm quality, count, and motility. Male factors are responsible for 40-50% of infertility cases. Furthermore, male fertility might affect the offspring's general health, influencing their susceptibility to specific disorders. Addressing male fertility concerns via lifestyle changes, a good diet, and medicinal therapies can enhance reproductive results dramatically. Understanding and dealing with male fertility is critical for overall reproductive health and family planning.1

  • Vitamins have an important role in male fertility support by increasing sperm health and reproductive function.
  • Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, protects sperm from oxidative damage (preventing damage to cells, proteins and DNA). 
  • Vitamin E helps to keep sperm cell membranes intact. 
  • Vitamin D has been linked to increased sperm count and motility. 
  • Vitamin B12 assists in the formation of sperm and the synthesis of DNA. 
  • Zinc(a mineral) is required for testosterone production and sperm health. 

Adequate consumption of these vitamins, whether through a balanced diet or supplementation, can improve male fertility.2 This article demonstrates the importance of vitamins in male fertility and will provide an overall idea of how each vitamin could help in having a healthy reproductive life.

Factors affecting male fertility 

Male fertility can be impacted by several factors, including: 

  • Age- As people get older, their sperm quality and quantity diminish.
  • Lifestyle changes- Smoking, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and a sedentary lifestyle can all have a detrimental influence on male fertility.
  • Obesity- Being overweight might cause hormonal abnormalities and impaired sperm production.
  • Medical conditions- Diabetes, infections, and hormone imbalances are all examples of medical issues that might have an impact on fertility.
  • Environmental exposures- Toxins, radiation, and pollution can all damage sperm production and function. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormonal balance and sperm production.
  • Drugs- Some drugs may have an unfavourable influence on male fertility.
  • Varicocele- A frequent disorder in which swollen veins in the scrotum interfere with sperm production.
  • Genetic factors- Inherited genetic disorders can have an impact on sperm quality.
  • Heat exposure- Long-term exposure to high temperatures (e.g., saunas and hot tubs) can affect sperm production.

Understanding these variables can help individuals make lifestyle changes and seek appropriate medical therapies to improve male fertility and raise the odds of successful conception.3

The role of vitamins in male fertility

Essential vitamins are essential micronutrients that play an important role in general health and fertility. Vitamin D, C, E, B-complex vitamins (B6, B12, folate), and antioxidants like selenium and zinc are all important for fertility. A well-balanced diet is vital for increasing fertility since it contains all of the vitamins and minerals required for reproductive health. A balanced diet improves hormone balance, increases the quality of eggs and sperm, and promotes a healthy reproductive system. Consuming a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats gives an appropriate supply of important vitamins and aids in the optimisation of fertility in both men and women.

Key vitamins in male fertility

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is important for male fertility. As a powerful antioxidant, it protects sperm from oxidative damage produced by free radicals, which can impair sperm quality and motility. Furthermore, vitamin C aids in the formation of collagen, which is necessary for the structural integrity of sperm cells. It also strengthens the immunological system, promoting general reproductive health. Adequate vitamin C consumption through food or supplementation can improve sperm health, improving the odds of successful conception. However, excessive use should be avoided since large amounts might harm fertility.5 Vitamin C is present in a variety of fruits and vegetables. Citrus fruits (oranges, grapefruits, lemons), Strawberries, Kiwi, Guava, Papaya, Mango, Pineapple, Berries (such as blueberries and raspberries), Bell peppers (especially red and green), Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Tomatoes, Spinach Kale, and Cantaloupe are some of the best food sources of vitamin C. Vitamin C consumption recommendations vary depending on age, gender, and life stage. However, the recommended daily consumption for most individuals is 75-90 mg for women and 90 mg for males

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for male fertility and testosterone production. Vitamin D receptors have been found in testicular cells and are important in testosterone production, according to research. Men with adequate vitamin D levels have better sperm quality, motility, and general reproductive health. Low vitamin D levels have been linked to lower testosterone levels, which can lead to sperm production difficulties and infertility.7 Ensuring appropriate vitamin D consumption through sunshine, food sources, or supplementation can improve male fertility and promote normal testosterone production. Vitamin D is plentiful in fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines. Cod liver oil has a high concentration of vitamin D. Many foods, including fortified milk, orange juice, and morning cereals, are vitamin D-enriched. A modest quantity of vitamin D is found in egg yolks. Beef liver contains a small amount of vitamin D.6

Vitamin E 

Vitamin E, being a powerful antioxidant, has an important function in male fertility. It protects sperm cells from oxidative stress and free radical damage. This antioxidant effect aids in the preservation of sperm DNA and membrane integrity, both of which are required for sperm viability and motility. Furthermore, vitamin E helps to improve sperm quality and count, hence boosting male reproductive health. Incorporating vitamin E-rich foods into the diet, such as nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, and leafy greens, can improve male fertility and lead to better overall reproductive results.9

Vitamin B-complex

Vitamin B complex is essential for male fertility. B vitamins, such as B6, B12, and folate, are required for the generation of healthy sperm and the whole reproductive process. B6 helps with hormone balance and sperm production, whereas B12 promotes sperm motility and count. Folate protects sperm DNA from damage, increasing genetic integrity. Furthermore, B vitamins help with general energy metabolism and prevent oxidative stress, both of which might have an influence on sperm quality. Ensuring an appropriate amount of vitamin B complex through a balanced diet or supplements can improve male fertility and reproductive outcomes.10


Zinc is vital for male fertility. It is a necessary mineral that aids in several facets of male reproductive health. Zinc is important in sperm generation and maturation, as well as sperm count and motility maintenance. It also aids in the prevention of DNA damage in sperm cells, guaranteeing genetic integrity and proper embryo development. Low zinc levels in males have been related to poor sperm quality and infertility. As a result, obtaining appropriate zinc intake through food or supplementation is critical for sustaining male reproductive health and fertility.11 Zinc-containing foods include seafood, mainly oysters are particularly high in zinc, although crab, lobster and prawns also contain large quantities. Zinc is abundant in beef, pig, and lamb and also may be found in poultry such as chicken and turkey. Pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, and cashews are all terrific alternatives for seeds and nuts. Zinc is found in legumes such as chickpeas, lentils, and beans (including black beans). Cheese and yoghurt are high in zinc. Zinc may be found in whole grains such as wheat germ, quinoa, and oats.12

Omega 3 fatty acids

Omega-3 promotes sperm motility, morphology, and overall sperm health, all of which are necessary for successful fertilisation. These important lipids, notably docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are required for the formation of sperm cell membranes. Omega-3 fatty acids also have anti-inflammatory effects, which help to reduce oxidative stress and preserve sperm from destruction. Including omega-3 fatty fish (salmon, mackerel), flaxseeds, and chia seeds in your diet can improve male fertility and help to healthy sperm production.13


Selenium is a prerequisite for male fertility. It protects sperm from oxidative damage as a vital trace mineral and antioxidant, guaranteeing their integrity and motility. Selenium also aids in the creation of healthy sperm by increasing DNA synthesis and appropriate sperm cell formation. Selenium supplementation may increase sperm characteristics such as quantity, morphology, and motility, according to research. Excessive selenium consumption, on the other hand, should be avoided as it may have a negative impact on fertility. Maintaining an adequate selenium level through a balanced diet or supplementation can improve male reproductive health and fertility.14


Vitamins have an important role in male fertility, and their impact on reproductive health should not be disregarded. Vitamin D, C, E, and B-complex vitamins, as well as antioxidants like selenium and zinc, all contribute to the correct functioning and development of the male reproductive system. These vitamins help regulate hormones, protect sperm from oxidative damage, improve sperm quality and motility, and boost DNA synthesis. Ensuring appropriate consumption of these vitamins through a balanced diet or supplementation can have a good influence on male fertility, contributing to increased sperm health and overall reproductive success. However, it is essential to check with a healthcare practitioner to establish individual needs and prevent excessive vitamin intake, which can hurt fertility.


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This content is purely informational and isn’t medical guidance. It shouldn’t replace professional medical counsel. Always consult your physician regarding treatment risks and benefits. See our editorial standards for more details.

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Aleena Rajan

Master Of Public Health (MPH) -University of Wolverhampton

Dr Aleena is an Ayurvedic Physician with extensive experience in hospital and clinical settings. She holds Indian licenses and board certification in Ayurvedic Medicine. She has worked as a consultant doctor for 3 years and also as Medical Officer for 2 years. She has dedicated her career to providing comprehensive medical care and improving the well-being of her patients. Currently, she is pursuing her postgraduation in public health. presents all health information in line with our terms and conditions. It is essential to understand that the medical information available on our platform is not intended to substitute the relationship between a patient and their physician or doctor, as well as any medical guidance they offer. Always consult with a healthcare professional before making any decisions based on the information found on our website.
Klarity is a citizen-centric health data management platform that enables citizens to securely access, control and share their own health data. Klarity Health Library aims to provide clear and evidence-based health and wellness related informative articles. 
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