What Is Technophobia?

  • Amy MurtaghPostgraduate Degree, Science Communication and Public Engagement, The University of Edinburgh, UK

Navigating the realm of technophobia: understanding, addressing, and overcoming fear of technology

Is the fear of technology real? Yes, it is the real thing. But how can anyone be afraid of technology when it surrounds us, from the most mundane household appliances to new technologies like wireless headsets and smartwatches? If this applies to you, this article will detail how you can help yourself adjust to and even confidently use common technologies.


What is technophobia?

In our modern society, we are surrounded by new and old technologies, and it can be easy to become overwhelmed by constant technological exposure, especially when you don’t understand everything about it.

One-third of the population suffers from technophobia, which is defined as an "abnormal fear or anxiety about the effects of advanced technology." Technophobia can impair your capacity to work effectively and can generate health issues such as poor mental health if the phobia becomes particularly distressing or taxing.1

Growing significance of technology in modern society

Technology has unquestionably had a significant impact on all aspects of life, and we now live in a very different world because of it. Almost every culture and field of society has undergone a technological revolution, from education to the arts and sciences.  Technology allows for the automation of numerous manual chores, and a lot of difficult and important activities can also be completed more easily and effectively with the aid of contemporary technology. The way humans live has undoubtedly changed, and most would argue for the better as a result of the application of technology.2

Importance of addressing technophobia for personal and societal growth

Fear is an uncomfortable feeling triggered by the perception of danger or harm associated with a particular entity or situation. This emotion can arise when encountering an immediate circumstance or when anticipating a potential future threat.

Technophobia encompasses several aspects, such as: 

  • Unease regarding current or forthcoming engagements with computers and computer-related devices 
  • An overall pessimistic stance towards computers, their functionality, and their societal repercussions
  • Specific adverse thoughts or self-critical internal dialogues that emerge while using computers or when considering future interactions with them

This definition underscores that technophobia carries several adverse consequences for individuals. Those afflicted by technophobia may deliberately steer clear of computers and associated technologies, ultimately impeding their ability to carry out tasks that rely on computerisation. 

This avoidance can hinder professional, educational, and personal endeavours that necessitate digital proficiency. Furthermore, the anxiety and negative attitudes associated with technophobia can hinder personal growth and limit opportunities in an increasingly technology-driven world. In essence, technophobia not only affects the relationship an individual has with technology but also has far-reaching implications for their overall functionality and adaptability in modern society.3

Psychological factors contributing to technophobia

According to the Cleveland Clinic, factors that can contribute to your developing technophobia include:

  • Fear of the unknown and change
  • Loss of control
  • Negative past experiences with technology

Manifestations of technophobia

Common reactions and behaviours associated with technophobia

A person's discomfort or disquiet in the face of technological progress, known as technophobia, is manifested through a variety of attitudes and behaviours.

Avoidance of new technologies

The willful avoidance of new technology is one of the main symptoms of technophobia. Technophobic people typically avoid interacting with new platforms, applications, or devices. This avoidance may be caused by apprehensions about making mistakes, worries about complexity, or the idea that technology would upend regular routines.

Anxiety and stress when confronted with technology

Technophobia often triggers anxiety and stress when individuals are confronted with technology. The mere thought of operating or interacting with unfamiliar digital tools can lead to palpable discomfort. This anxiety might be rooted in the fear of the unknown, a lack of confidence in navigating technology, or concerns about potential negative consequences.

Stereotyping and overgeneralization of technological impact

Technophobia can make sufferers physically uncomfortable even considering using or interacting with unfamiliar digital technologies. This anxiety may be caused by a fear of the unknown, a lack of trust in one's ability to use technology or worries about unfavourable outcomes.5

Specific phobia sufferers can exhibit severe physical signs of anxiety. These indicators could be:

  • Dyspnea (lack of breath or shortness of breath)
  • Dizziness
  • Stumbling and/or fainting
  • Sweating and/or flushed skin
  • Heart palpitations or a fast, irregular heartbeat
  • Nausea and/or vomiting 

Factors fueling technophobia

Media portrayal of technology

Dystopian narratives and technological fear in popular culture

One contributing factor towards the development of technophobia is the media’s depiction of technology in dystopian and frightening scenarios. Technology is frequently portrayed in films, TV shows, and literary works as a source of disaster that causes society to collapse or the loss of humanity. Such depictions increase concerns and strengthen unfavourable opinions people may have towards technology.

Amplification of risks over benefits

Media often exaggerates the dangers of technology while downplaying any potential advantages. News stories about data breaches, privacy issues, and job loss frequently garner more attention than those about technical advancements that make people's lives better. This lopsided emphasis adds to the general atmosphere of dread and uncertainty.6

The rapid pace of technological change

Overwhelm due to constant innovation

People can become overwhelmed by the pace of technological progress, especially those who already struggle with technophobia. Even individuals who are open to technology may find it difficult to keep up with the most recent advancements due to constant invention, which exacerbates feelings of inadequacy and anxiety.

Perception of inability to keep up

Technology is always developing, which can give the impression that one cannot keep up. Technophobia is a result of people's anxiety over being left behind in digital culture and their fear of falling behind or being outdated.7

Consequences of technophobia

Personal limitations

Hindrance in professional growth

Technophobia can seriously impede one's ability to advance professionally. Technology competence is a skill that is necessary for many modern jobs; therefore, those who are reluctant to embrace it may lose out on important opportunities to grow.

Impediment to effective communication

Communication increasingly relies on digital platforms, and technophobes might struggle to engage in modern modes of interaction. This limitation can hinder relationships, collaboration, and participation in various aspects of life.

Societal implications

Widening the digital divide

By separating people who accept technology from those who do not, technophobia leads to the digital divide. This gap could result in unequal access to opportunities, services, and information, aggravating already-existing socioeconomic imbalances.

Slower adoption of beneficial technologies

Societies that encourage technophobia may adopt useful technologies more slowly. This opposition to innovation could stall the adoption of ideas that would improve productivity, sustainability, and general well-being.8


Treatment for technophobia may resemble remedies for other specialised phobias. 

Technophobes can overcome their phobias by being encouraged to experiment without fear of rejection. An environment where mistakes can be made safely lowers anxiety and promotes a positive relationship with technology.

Cognitive-behavioural techniques

Identifying and challenging irrational beliefs

Individuals with irrational views about technology can identify them and address them using cognitive-behavioural strategies. This entails challenging unfavourable presumptions about technology and casting it in a more practical context.

Learning coping mechanisms for anxiety

Learning coping skills can help technophobes control their anxiety when exposed to technology. Effective tactics include breathing exercises, mindfulness practices, and progressive exposure.


How can I overcome technophobia?

One of the best ways to overcome technophobia is to increase your so-called ‘digital literacy’. Increasing your understanding of technology and demystifying technological terms through education. This may help you to feel more empowered and in control of your interactions with digital technologies after being given more of an insight into how technology functions.

You may also wish to investigate the many benefits and useful advantages technology brings to the world. You should also be careful of which sources you choose to read, asking yourself, is this providing people with accurate, likely information that addresses problems and helps make wise decisions?

How can I control my exposure to technology?

Technophobia can become less severe with a gradual and careful introduction to technology. Building confidence can be accomplished by starting with basic devices and apps and working your way up to more complicated ones.

You should also ask people you trust to help you get acquainted with technology or go to a local support group or beginners class where you can be advised by friendly, approachable experts. Depending on whether you are enrolled in a place of education or part of a workplace, you may wish to ask your teachers, lecturers, peers, bosses or colleagues for support with technology as there should always be someone willing to help you. 

How can I build a positive relationship with technology?

Building a positive relationship with technology relies on mindful media consumption. Until you are more confident in your own ‘media literacy’, ask someone else you trust to help you evaluate how technology is portrayed in the media, particularly if you are unsure or something concerns you. It’s always better to speak up about your worries rather than letting them fester and to better differentiate between irrational anxieties and valid concerns.

Negative narratives and messages frequently promoted by the media can also be countered by actively seeking out balanced viewpoints on technology. Engaging with content that emphasizes both problems and solutions gives you a more complete picture.

How can I help someone with technophobia and encourage technological acceptance in society?

The best way you can help someone you know or people in generally overcome technophobia is to be inclusive with how you present and explain technology (by no means do you have to be an expert, but be reassuring if you are assisting someone with a piece of technology!) 

Society is also affected by something called the digital divide (where some groups of people have more and freer access to technology and online resources), and this must be closed in order to increase the adoption of technology. 

Technology should be (and also is becoming) made more inclusive and user-friendly by being designed to satisfy various access needs, such as catering towards people who are deaf, blind and/or have impaired motor function. If your or someone else’s technophobia is due to having different access needs, adjusting or finding better-suited technology can help you or them to feel more at ease using technology and overcome technophobia.

Finally, be reassured that very few people adopt brand-new technology right away - rather, many people wait for devices and applications to be tried and tested by trusted sources and become part of the mainstream before using them themselves. It may also help to reframe the function of technology by focusing on its use as a tool to improve human experiences, from healthcare to entertainment, to help dispel misconceptions and foster acceptance.


Understanding the manifestations of technophobia, its underlying factors, and its consequences is crucial for fostering a more technologically inclusive society. Overcoming technophobia requires a combination of education, controlled exposure, cognitive-behavioural techniques, and building a positive technological relationship. Encouraging technological acceptance involves promoting inclusivity, redefining progress, and embracing a lifelong learning mindset. By addressing technophobia at both individual and societal levels, we can create a future where technology is embraced as a tool for progress and empowerment. 


  1. Ha JG, Page T, Thorsteinsson G. A study on technophobia and mobile device design. International Journal of Contents [Internet]. 2011 Jun 28 [cited 2023 Aug 24];7(2):17–25. Available from: http://koreascience.or.kr/journal/view.jsp?kj=E1CTBR&py=2011&vnc=v7n2&sp=17
  2. Raja R, Nagasubramani PC. Impact of modern technology in education. Journal of Applied and Advanced Research. 2018 May 10;3(1):33-5. Available from: Impact_of_modern_technology_in_education20200710-27957-jsmaeg-libre.pdf (d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net)
  3. Oh C, Lee T, Kim Y, Park S, Kwon S, Suh B. Us vs. Them: understanding artificial intelligence technophobia over the Google deepmind challenge match. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems [Internet]. Denver Colorado USA: ACM; 2017 [cited 2023 Aug 24]. p. 2523–34. Available from: https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3025453.3025539
  4. The manifestation and impacts of technophobia in psychological science. Docslib. [cited 2023 Aug 25]. Available from: https://docslib.org/doc/11443189/the-manifestation-and-impacts-of-technophobia-in-psychological-science
  5. Davidson BI, Ellis D, Bowman N, Liveley G, Shaw H, Przybylski AK, Levine M. Avoiding irrelevance: The manifestation and impacts of technophobia in psychological science.Available from: https://psyarxiv.com/b9f4p/download?format=pdf
  6. Çalışkan HK. Technological change and economic growth. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences [Internet]. 2015 Jul 3 [cited 2023 Aug 25];195:649–54. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042815036538
  7. Brosnan MJ. Technophobia: the psychological impact of information technology. Routledge; 2002. Available from: Technophobia - Google Books
This content is purely informational and isn’t medical guidance. It shouldn’t replace professional medical counsel. Always consult your physician regarding treatment risks and benefits. See our editorial standards for more details.

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