Dealing With Menstrual Cramps

  • Eloise Samaha, MSCi, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol
  • Sophie Downton, BSc, Biomedical Sciences, University of Reading


Menstrual cramps can be a very uncomfortable experience for menstruating individuals and can significantly affect one’s quality of life during menstruation. There are various strategies available for one to try when dealing with menstrual cramps. Firstly, staying physically active can help alleviate menstrual pain and discomfort. Secondly, keeping track of your cycle through apps or calendars can help prepare for your period and better understand your body's patterns. Lastly, practising self-care and adopting a healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition and stress management, can positively impact your overall menstrual health. Read on to explore more in-depth tips and advice for effectively navigating your menstrual cycle with greater ease and confidence. 


Menstrual cramps, also known as dysmenorrhea, are a common and uncomfortable experience that many menstruating people face during their menstrual cycle. These painful sensations in the lower abdomen can range from mild discomfort to debilitating pain; severely painful menstrual cramps may be a sign of an underlying health condition since menstrual cramps should not be so painful that they affect one’s ability to perform day-to-day tasks. Dealing with menstrual cramps is a crucial aspect of managing overall menstrual health and well-being. By understanding the causes, prevalence, and symptoms of menstrual cramps, menstruating individuals can equip themselves with effective strategies to alleviate the pain and discomfort associated with this natural process.

This article aims to explore various approaches and self-care techniques that can help individuals cope with menstrual cramps. From home remedies and over-the-counter medications to lifestyle adjustments and seeking professional guidance, we will delve into a comprehensive guide to managing menstrual cramps effectively to allow menstruating individuals to navigate their periods with greater ease and confidence.

Moreover, we will explore the importance of self-care during menstruation, emphasizing the significance of embracing menstruation as a natural aspect of life. With this information, menstruating people can gain insight into their bodies, identify the most suitable coping mechanisms, and foster a positive and nurturing relationship with their menstrual cycle.

Understanding menstrual cramps

Causes and factors contributing to cramps

Menstrual cramps occur due to the contraction of the uterine muscles during menstruation due to the release of prostaglandins (hormone-like molecules), which trigger these contractions so that the lining of the uterus can be shed completely.1 Higher levels of prostaglandins can lead to more intense contractions, resulting in severe cramps. Other factors which may contribute to the severity and frequency of menstrual cramps include hormonal imbalances, genetics, and certain medical conditions like endometriosis or uterine fibroids1

Types of menstrual pain

There are two types of menstrual pain: primary and secondary.1 Primary dysmenorrhea refers to cramps that occur naturally without any underlying medical condition. It typically begins within the first two years of one’s first period and is the most common type of menstrual pain. On the other hand, secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or uterine fibroids. Secondary dysmenorrhea often starts later in life and may be associated with more severe and persistent pain, alongside irregular and heavy periods and cramps which persist throughout menstruation.

Differentiating normal vs. severe cramps

Normal menstrual cramps, or primary dysmenorrhea, are usually mild to moderate in intensity and can be managed with self-care techniques and over-the-counter painkiller medication. They typically occur just before and during the early days of menstruation and tend to subside as the period progresses, although this is different for every individual. In contrast, severe cramps, especially if they worsen over time or are accompanied by heavy bleeding and irregular periods, may indicate an underlying medical condition. If the pain becomes debilitating and significantly affects daily activities, seeking medical evaluation and treatment is crucial to address the underlying cause and alleviate the pain effectively.1

Home remedies and self-care to reduce menstrual cramps

Menstrual cramps can be effectively managed with various home remedies and self-care techniques to promote menstrual well-being. Here are some practical approaches:

  • Heat therapy: Applying a heating pad or a hot water bottle to the lower abdomen and/or lower back can help relax the uterine muscles and alleviate cramps. The warmth increases blood flow to the area,, which aids the uterus in shedding its lining and reduces pain and discomfort.
  • Gentle exercise and stretching: Engaging in light physical activity, such as walking, yoga, or gentle stretching, can ease muscle tension and promote blood circulation, leading to reduced cramping. There are various videos and tutorials online which describe period yoga and exercises which are specifically tailored to reduce menstrual cramps.
  • Dietary changes: Staying hydrated and consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can support menstrual health. Some individuals find relief by reducing caffeine, fatty and salty food intake and alcohol consumption, as these can exacerbate cramps and bloating.
  • Herbal remedies: Certain herbal teas, such as ginger or chamomile tea, are known for their anti-inflammatory and soothing properties, which can help ease menstrual discomfort.
  • Relaxation techniques: Practicing relaxation techniques like meditation or deep breathing can reduce stress and tension, which may contribute to more painful cramps.
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers: Over-the-counter medications like ibuprofen or paracetamol can effectively calm menstrual pain. Ask a pharmacist or read the instructions for these medications to determine how frequently to take them.
  • Rest and sleep: Ensuring adequate rest and sleep during menstruation can support the body's natural healing processes and aid in pain management.

By incorporating these home remedies and self-care practices into their routine, individuals can empower themselves to handle menstrual cramps more effectively and improve their overall well-being during their menstrual cycle. However, if menstrual pain becomes severe or interferes significantly with daily activities, it is essential to seek medical advice to rule out any underlying medical conditions and receive appropriate treatment.

Prescription medications and alternative therapies for menstrual Pain

Prescription medications:

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Prescription-strength NSAIDs, such as naproxen or mefenamic acid, may be recommended by a healthcare provider to manage severe menstrual pain if over-the-counter painkillers do not adequately reduce menstrual cramps. These medications work by reducing inflammation and blocking prostaglandin production, effectively alleviating cramps and discomfort.2

Hormonal treatments: For individuals with severe menstrual pain caused by hormonal imbalances, hormonal treatments may be prescribed. Birth control pills, hormonal patches, or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs) can help regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce the intensity of cramps.2

Alternative therapies:

Acupuncture: Acupuncture, an ancient Chinese healing practice, involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body, which are believed to stimulate certain neural pathways to block pain impulses and receptors. It is believed to stimulate the body's natural healing responses and may help reduce menstrual pain and cramps.3 Acupuncture is performed by accredited professionals; have a look online to find an acupuncturist near your location if this alternative therapy appeals to you.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS): TENS involves the application of electrodes onto the skin where cramps are taking place to deliver low-voltage electrical currents, which can reduce pain signals to provide relief from menstrual cramps. TENS machines are small and take the form of patches or pads linked to a small plastic box which delivers the electrical current. These machines are discreet and portable and can be used throughout one’s day-to-day activities.1

Massage therapy and reflexology: Gentle massages and reflexology techniques applied to specific pressure points may help relax muscles and alleviate menstrual pain. A massage therapist will know the optimal pressure points to work on for the specific purpose of reducing menstrual cramps. Aromatherapy is often combined with massage therapy, using specific scents and essential oils to reduce one’s pain and discomfort.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any prescription medication or alternative therapy for menstrual pain. They can provide personalized recommendations based on an individual’s specific needs to ensure safe and effective management of menstrual discomfort. Combining prescription medications, alternative therapies, and self-care techniques can offer a holistic approach to menstrual pain relief and improve overall menstrual well-being.2

Dealing with menstrual cramps while at work or school

Practical strategies are required to manage discomfort and maintain productivity when one is not able to stay home during menstruation. First and foremost, keeping a small heating pad or portable hot water bottle in a bag can offer discreet and soothing relief. Engaging in light stretching or gentle exercises, such as walking or desk yoga, can help alleviate muscle tension and improve blood flow. It is crucial to stay hydrated and have a healthy snack nearby to maintain energy levels. Additionally, communicating with supervisors or teachers about the situation can lead to understanding and potential accommodations being made. Taking short breaks when needed and finding a quiet and comfortable space for a few minutes can aid in relaxation. Being prepared with over-the-counter pain relievers, as well as any prescribed medications, can offer quick relief if necessary. Prioritizing self-care during this time ensures that work or school obligations can be fulfilled while managing menstrual cramps with ease and discretion.3


How can I alleviate menstrual cramps without using medication?

You can try heat therapy, such as using a heating pad or hot water bottle, to relax the uterine muscles and reduce pain. Gentle exercises like walking or yoga, as well as herbal remedies like ginger or chamomile tea, can also provide relief. Additionally, relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or meditation may help ease cramping.

Are over-the-counter medications safe and effective for managing menstrual pain?

Yes, over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can be effective in reducing menstrual cramps when taken as directed. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and consult a healthcare provider if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking other medications.

What are the benefits of tracking my menstrual cycle?

Tracking your menstrual cycle through apps or calendars can help you anticipate your period, allowing you to be better prepared for managing menstrual cramps. It also enables you to recognize patterns in your menstrual symptoms, providing valuable insights into your body's rhythms and overall health.


In summary, dealing with menstrual cramps involves a multi-faceted approach to ensure overall menstrual well-being and comfort. Understanding the causes and types of menstrual pain empowers individuals to implement effective strategies. Home remedies like heat therapy, herbal remedies, and relaxation techniques offer relief, while over-the-counter and prescription medications provide additional support. Alternative therapies like TENS can complement traditional treatments. Practising self-care and maintaining a healthy lifestyle are crucial for managing menstrual pain. Finally, at work or school, open communication, self-care tools, and preemptive thinking can help individuals cope with cramps while maintaining productivity. By embracing these strategies, individuals can navigate their menstrual cycles with greater ease and confidence, promoting a positive and nurturing relationship with their bodies.


  1. Itani, R. et al., 2022. Primary Dysmenorrhea: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Updates [online]. Korean Journal of Family Medicine, 43(2), pp.101–108. Available at:  [Accessed 4 August 2023]. 
  2. Ní Chéileachair, F., McGuire, B.E., Durand, H., 2022. Coping with dysmenorrhea: a qualitative analysis of period pain management among students who menstruate [online]. BMC Women’s Health, 22, p.407. Available at:  [Accessed 4 August 2023].
  3. Sharghi, M. et al., 2019. An update and systematic review on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea [online]. JBRA Assisted Reproduction, 23(1), pp.51–57. Available at:  [Accessed 4 August 2023].
This content is purely informational and isn’t medical guidance. It shouldn’t replace professional medical counsel. Always consult your physician regarding treatment risks and benefits. See our editorial standards for more details.

Get our health newsletter

Get daily health and wellness advice from our medical team.
Your privacy is important to us. Any information you provide to this website may be placed by us on our servers. If you do not agree do not provide the information.

Lekha Lachubuktha

Masters in Neuropharmacology, Nottingham Trent University

Lekha is an enthusiastic and talented medical writer with a deep passion for effective science communication. With a background in Neuropharmacology and Pharmacy, she brings fresh insights and a thirst for learning to her writing, contributing to advancing health awareness and knowledge. As a new starter, Lekha is excited to embark on this journey, utilizing her extensive knowledge and hands-on experience to make a meaningful difference in medical writing.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * presents all health information in line with our terms and conditions. It is essential to understand that the medical information available on our platform is not intended to substitute the relationship between a patient and their physician or doctor, as well as any medical guidance they offer. Always consult with a healthcare professional before making any decisions based on the information found on our website.
Klarity is a citizen-centric health data management platform that enables citizens to securely access, control and share their own health data. Klarity Health Library aims to provide clear and evidence-based health and wellness related informative articles. 
Klarity / Managed Self Ltd
Alum House
5 Alum Chine Road
Westbourne Bournemouth BH4 8DT
VAT Number: 362 5758 74
Company Number: 10696687

Phone Number:

 +44 20 3239 9818