Skin Disorders

Understanding skin disorder

The largest organ in your body is the skin. It wraps around and protects you. This organ’s main roles are:

  • Keeps body fluids in place and prevents dehydration
  • Limits infections by keeping harmful microbes away
  • Aids in the perception of heat, cold, and pain

Maintains a consistent body temperature

  • When exposed to sunlight, it produces vitamin D1

Anything that affects these functions can result in a variety of skin diseases with different signs and symptoms.

Common causes

Skin diseases can be caused by various factors, including allergies, irritants, certain diseases, genetics, and immune system issues.

Signs and symptoms

Anything that irritates, clogs, and inflames the skin can develop symptoms like

  • Redness
  • Hives
  • Swelling
  • Burning
  • Itching
  • Rashes, etc.

Many skin diseases such as acne can have an impact on appearance.1

What are the common skin disorders?

There are a few skin disorders that can affect children. skin diseases frequently differ from those seen in adults to the point where they require special attention. The most prevalent skin conditions that affect infants and kids include the following:2

Diaper rash

Also known as “the nappy rash” is an inflammation of the skin in the nappy area of the body. It primarily manifests as a contact dermatitis irritant. Urine, feces, and fecal enzymes are the main irritants, which cause skin breakdown, usually on the surfaces of the buttocks, sparing the skin folds.

Using super-absorbent disposable diapers, frequent diaper changes, nappy-free periods, and the application of barrier cream, ointment, or paste are all part of the initial treatment.3

Birthmarks (hemangioma)

During the first few weeks of life,  vascular lesions commonly manifest as blue or pink patches or macules.

Most lesions are benign, but some can be problematic and require early detection and treatment.

These subsequently move into a proliferation phase and may rise above the nearby skin surfaces. Haemangiomas can be distinguished from other vascular lesions by their growth pattern. Most haemangiomas finish their proliferative growth phase by the time they are 5 months old, and 80% of growth typically happens by the end of the third month. Once involution starts, it is 90% complete by the time a child is 4 years old.4

Seborrheic and atopic dermatitis

A common inflammatory skin condition called seborrheic dermatitis (SD) typically causes erythema and scaling on the scalp, nasolabial fold( also known as ''smile lines'),' forehead, and, occasionally, the central face and chest. It is usually worsened by stress and in infants, may appear as a cradle cap, which is a scaling of the scalp.5

The most typical type of eczema, which causes the skin to become itchy, dry, and cracked, is atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis). Children are more likely to develop atopic eczema, frequently before their first birthday. Even though it's typically a long-term (chronic) condition, some children may experience significant improvements or even complete recovery as they age.6

If you think your child might have symptoms of seborrheic or atopic dermatitis speak to a healthcare professional.

More skin diseases that can affect children are 

  • Alopecia areata
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Herpes simplex
  • Infantile eczema
  • Insect bites
  • Keloid2

Some skin diseases which can affect adults have a big role in their appearance and sometimes can affect mental health. Skin disorders can be temporary or permanent. Common adult skin disorders are:


Acne is a skin condition that affects the majority of the population at some point, and it occurs when tiny holes in the skin known as hair follicles become clogged. Hormonal changes, genetic markers, bacteria, stress, and other factors can all contribute to acne. It is important to understand that some disorders, such as PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome), can cause acne. If you have acne that is difficult to manage, we recommend that you consult a dermatologist for further instructions.7

Contact dermatitis

An allergic or irritating skin reaction brought on by an external agent is known as contact dermatitis. While allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, irritant contact dermatitis is brought on by direct toxicity without prior sensitization.

Causes localized burning, stinging, itching, blistering, redness, and swelling where the allergen or irritant is in contact with the skin.

Rarely, contact dermatitis can spread to other areas of the body, causing areas of dermatitis far from the site of the initial contact with the causative agent.

Exposure to an allergen can also cause other allergic reactions like allergic rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis.8

More skin diseases that can affect adults are:

Although the majority of skin conditions do not pose a threat to your life or are not harmful to your physical health, some of them can seriously impair your health and endanger your life. 

Psoriatic arthritis 

It is a form of arthritis that some people with the skin condition psoriasis experience. Typically, it makes affected joints swollen, inflexible, and painful.

Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic condition that can progressively worsen, much like psoriasis. If it's severe, surgery might be required to prevent permanent joint damage or deformity.

However, the progression of psoriatic arthritis can be slowed down and the risk of developing permanent joint damage can be reduced or avoided with early diagnosis and treatment.9

Skin cancer (non-melanoma)

Sometimes, we choose to ignore skin problems because we believe they are unimportant or we have more pressing matters to attend to. Knowing the difference between benign skin conditions and cancerous ones is crucial because some lumps on our skin may be cancerous.

Cancerous lumps are typically red, and firm, and occasionally develop into ulcers, whereas cancerous patches are typically flat and scaly.

Skin that is frequently exposed to the sun, such as the face, ears, hands, shoulders, upper chest, and back, is where non-melanoma skin cancer most frequently develops.

If you have any abnormality on your skin, such as a lump, ulcer, lesion, or skin discoloration that has not gone away after four weeks, consult a doctor. It's best to have it checked even though skin cancer is unlikely to be the cause.10

Skin cancer (melanoma)

Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that has the potential to spread to the body's internal organs. The appearance of a new mole or a change in an existing mole is the most typical melanoma sign. Although it can occur anywhere on the body, the legs and back of men and women are the most frequently affected areas. In areas that are shielded from sunlight, like the scalp and buttocks, melanomas are uncommon.

Melanomas typically have an irregular shape and are multicoloured. Additionally, the mole might be larger than usual and occasionally itchy or bleeding.

Be very careful about a mole that gradually changes in size, colour, or shape.

If you notice any changes to your moles, consult a doctor. If they believe you have melanoma, they will refer you to a hospital or specialized clinic.

A suspicious mole is typically surgically removed and carefully examined to determine whether it is cancerous.11

Tips to treat and prevent skin disorders

These are widespread health issues that can harm people of all ages, from newborns to the elderly, and do so in a variety of ways. A healthy body depends on having healthy skin. Home remedies and natural treatments are cheap and claimed to be safe.

Here are some tips that can help you:

Use an ice pack or a cold, wet cloth on itchy skin. Continue doing this for five to ten minutes or until the itching stops.

Take a bath with oatmeal. Particularly if you have blisters or oozing skin from sunburn, this can be very soothing.

Hydrate your skin. Always pick a moisturizer devoid of fragrances, additives, and perfumes.

Use warm water for your baths rather than hot. Try to keep your shower or bath to no more than 10 minutes.12

Self-care is very important for your skin and lifestyle changes can improve your symptoms a lot. The skin is subject to a variety of environmental factors. These elements affect the physiological skin function's homeostasis and can occasionally cause the skin to become inflammatory in order to properly adapt to environmental stimuli on the outside. For instance, psoriasis is a representative inflammatory condition in the field of dermatology, and it is well known that one's daily habits can either exacerbate or control cutaneous inflammation.13 

Such as poor diet, smoking, lack of sleep, stress and anxiety, sun exposure, and more, can affect your skin conditions and worsen your symptoms. 


Several factors can contribute to the symptoms of skin disorders. Each factor must be identified and addressed if treatment is to be successful. Successful treatment of skin diseases may necessitate long-term or lifelong treatment and is frequently a matter of successful control rather than cure.

 Some medications that are used to treat skin conditions are:

  • Antibiotics-treating infections caused by certain bacteria(vancomycin, doxycycline and etc)14
  • Antifungal drugs- treating skin disorders caused by fungal infection (clotrimazole, fluconazole, nystatin, etc.)15
  •  antiparasitic drugs-treating infections caused by parasites (Acticin; Permethrin; etc.)16
  •  Hormones- a treatment used to treat skin disorders. Glucocorticoids (a type of corticosteroids), oral contraception pills and etc.17 
  •  vitamin and mineral supplements-Many vitamins and minerals contribute to skin health. A variety of them can be used to treat skin diseases and disorders(retinoids, fish oil, biotin, zinc and etc.)18

When to consult a medical specialist 

If you notice any irregular skin growths, asymmetrical moles, or lesions, or if you experience unusual redness, itching, pain, or rashes on your skin, you should always consult a medical specialist.


We are susceptible to hundreds of skin conditions. A minimum of one skin disorder affected almost everyone at some point in their lives. Finding the differences to watch out for can be important because the most common can produce symptoms that are similar to others.


  1. Skin conditions [Internet]. [cited 2022 Nov 15].
  2. EPSTEIN S, ROWE RJ. Most important skin diseases of children: their diagnosis and treatment. AMA American Journal of Diseases of Children [Internet]. 1955 Apr 1 [cited 2022 Nov 16];89(4):476–83.
  3. Nappy rash - symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | bmj best practice [Internet]. [cited 2022 Nov 16].
  4. Krowchuk DP, Frieden IJ, Mancini AJ, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of infantile hemangiomas. Pediatrics. 2019 Jan;143(1): e20183475.
  5. Clark GW, Pope SM, Jaboori KA. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Feb 1;91(3):185-90.
  6. Atopic eczema [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Nov 16].
  7. Acne [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  8. Contact dermatitis - symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | bmj best practice [Internet]. [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  9. Psoriatic arthritis [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  10. Non-melanoma skin cancer [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  11. Melanoma skin cancer [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  12. How to relieve itchy skin [Internet]. [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  13. Addolorato G., Parente A., de Lorenzi G., D’Angelo Di Paola M.E., Abenavoli L., Leggio L., Capristo E., De Simone C., Rotoli M., Rapaccini G.L., et al. Rapid regression of psoriasis in a coeliac patient after gluten-free diet. A case report and review of the literature. Digestion. 2003;68:9–12. doi: 10.1159/000073220.
  14. Golan Y. Current treatment options for acute skin and skin-structure infections. Clin Infect Dis [Internet]. 2019 Apr 1 [cited 2022 Nov 17];68(Suppl 3):S206–12.
  15. Antifungal medicines [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  16. Campbell S, Soman-Faulkner K. Antiparasitic drugs. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 17].
  17. Ebede TL, Arch EL, Berson D. Hormonal treatment of acne in women. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology [Internet]. 2009 Dec [cited 2022 Nov 17];2(12):16.
  18. ichalak M, Pierzak M, Kręcisz B, Suliga E. Bioactive compounds for skin health: a review. Nutrients [Internet]. 2021 Jan 12 [cited 2022 Nov 17];13(1):203.
This content is purely informational and isn’t medical guidance. It shouldn’t replace professional medical counsel. Always consult your physician regarding treatment risks and benefits. See our editorial standards for more details.

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Mariam Nikolaishvili

Bachelor of medicine, Tbilisi State University, Georgia

I am Mariam Nikolaishvili, a sixth-year medical student. I decided to become a doctor when I was 5 years old, and I haven’t changed my mind since. Being a dermatologist and helping people with various skin conditions is my primary objective. I chose to participate in the Klarity internship because I have always loved to write and wanted to learn more about writing for the medical field.

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