Vitamins For Fertility

  • Fatima zehra M. Phil in Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Pakistan


Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals which are obtained through food or supplements; these nutrients are vital for the body to function properly and play a key role in fertility. Micronutrients have important roles in women’s reproductive health and are essential for menstruation and ovulation, thyroid function, energy production, immune function and maturation of eggs. This is why intake of vitamins and minerals is necessary for a healthy pregnancy, and individuals who are trying to get pregnant or who are carrying a baby need to ensure they are eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and other foods containing these micronutrients.

Vitamins that boost fertility

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a critical nutrient for fertility: deficiency of vitamin D can cause decreased fertility in both men and women. Vitamin D deficiency is very common since individuals tend not to produce and/or ingest enough of it. Vitamin D is needed for the development and maintenance of bones. Hence, a pregnant individual requires additional Vitamin D compared to a non-pregnant person to ensure their baby develops correctly. A correlation has also been found between healthy levels of Vitamin D in the blood and an increase in positive pregnancy tests, live births and a reduced risk of pregnancy loss.  Vitamin D has also been found to increase semen quality by increasing the levels of calcium in sperm, leading to increased motility.1

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that is vital for reproduction and gynaecological health. Normal vitamin E levels support the female reproductive system and can reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy. A long-term deficiency in Vitamin E can lead to infertility in both males and females, hence it is vital to receive enough of this vitamin. For fertility, Vitamin E can increase the thickness of the endometrial layer in females, hence improving the chances of implantation of a fertilised egg into the uterine layer. Studies have found a correlation between Vitamin E supplements and increased sperm motility in males alongside a higher incidence of live births.2,3

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is another powerful antioxidant which is often recommended as a supplement in pregnant individuals or those attempting to become pregnant. Vitamin C is essential for normal female reproductive health and plays a major role during ovulation and in keeping the maturing egg healthy. Vitamin C supplements also correlate with a higher rate of positive pregnancy tests, hence aiding in the fertilisation and egg implantation process. In males, Vitamin C can also improve sperm count. Vitamin C and Vitamin E supplements are often recommended in combination for men with poor sperm counts or infertility since it has been shown that such supplementation increases sperm quality and the chances of fertilisation.4,5,6

Vitamin B

Vitamin B consists of a family of different vitamins, all of which are important for fertility and reproductive health. Vitamin B6 plays a large role in fertility and the menstrual cycle, and taking supplements can greatly increase the chances of getting pregnant. Vitamin B6 also plays a role in regulating the levels of oestrogen and progesterone, the female hormones responsible for the different phases of the menstrual cycle, which are vital for reproductive health.7

Vitamin B12 is another essential vitamin which is important for overall health as well as fertility and pregnancy. It has been found that higher levels of Vitamin B12 correlate to a higher chance of live births, especially alongside higher levels of Vitamin B9 (also known as folate or folic acid). Supplements containing these two vitamins can help prevent early birth defects and miscarriages and also increase the chances of maintaining a healthy pregnancy. A deficiency in Vitamin B12 or folate in pregnant women can increase the chances of the child developing neural tube defects - such conditions include the spinal cord or brain not developing properly. A folate deficiency can also increase the chances of premature births and issues during childbirth. For these reasons, females who are trying to conceive should take folic acid supplements every day before getting pregnant and until 3 months into the pregnancy. This ensures the baby will have enough of this essential vitamin and will be able to develop correctly.8,9

Once again, the B vitamins are important for sperm count and motility, especially Vitamin B6, B12 and B9. These vitamins can be prescribed to couples who are struggling to conceive and can greatly increase sperm quality, production and chances of fertilisation.7,8

Minerals that boost fertility


Zinc is an essential component of the genetic material and is very important concerning fertility. Zinc is found in high concentrations in sperm and is used in the production of the tail and the outer layer of the sperm. Zinc deficiency is associated with sperm defects and incomplete sperm maturation, hence impeding the chances of fertilisation. Similarly, in females, zinc is required for maturation and quality of the egg, and a deficiency can prevent the egg from being adequate for fertilisation. Zinc plays a vital role in fertilisation and embryonic development; it is very important that pregnant individuals ingest the right amounts of zinc and supplements be prescribed if they are deficient. Zinc also aids in regulating testosterone, a male reproductive hormone vital for normal sperm production, and may also regulate progesterone, a female reproductive hormone.10,11


Deficiency of selenium during pregnancy can lead to premature births, miscarriages and abnormal embryonic development. Normal levels of selenium during pregnancy can promote embryonic development and prevent DNA damage from taking place.  A deficiency of this element may also cause lowered fertility in men by causing a deterioration in the quality of sperm, causing them to be unable to fertilise an egg. Selenium deficiency can also affect the testicles in terms of their shape and size and can cause hormonal imbalances due to altered thyroid function.12,13 


Iron is an essential mineral for fertility. Research shows that iron supplements decrease the risk of ovulatory infertility in females, hence suggesting that iron is important for normal ovulation and reproductive health. Iron is vital not only for adults but also for developing babies; an iron deficiency in a pregnant individual can cause them to develop anaemia, which can harm the mother as well as the baby. In males, iron deficiency can cause infertility, although too much iron can also cause infertility and sexual dysfunction, hence a normal balance is required for sexual health.14,15

Foods that contain fertility micronutrients: 

  • Leafy greens
  • Citrus fruits
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Beans and lentils
  • Oysters

Various other foods can boost fertility, the chances of conception and the development of a baby in the womb. 

Consult your healthcare provider if you are having issues with fertility and conception, and they will recommend a list of fertility micronutrient-rich foods to incorporate into your diet to increase your chances of conception.


Fertility vitamins are micronutrients that you get through food or supplements that have been shown to play a key role in fertility and pregnancy. They include vitamins such as vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and B12 and folic acid, and fertility minerals such as zinc, selenium and iron. Such essential micronutrients can be obtained naturally from foods such as leafy greens, citrus fruits, nuts seeds and oysters. It is best to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns so that they can advise you on how to proceed and recommend supplements and foods which will increase your chances of conception.


  1. Pilz S, Zittermann A, Obeid R, Hahn A, Pludowski P, Trummer C, et al. The role of vitamin d in fertility and during pregnancy and lactation: a review of clinical data. IJERPH [Internet]. 2018 Oct 12 [cited 2024 Jan 29];15(10):2241. Available from:
  2. Md Amin NA, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Arshad AH, Abdul Aziz N, Abdul Nasir NA, Ab Latip N. Are vitamin e supplementation beneficial for female gynaecology health and diseases? Molecules [Internet]. 2022 Mar 15 [cited 2024 Jan 29];27(6):1896. Available from:
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  4. Skoracka K, Ratajczak AE, Rychter AM, Dobrowolska A, Krela-Kaźmierczak I. Female fertility and the nutritional approach: the most essential aspects. Adv Nutr [Internet]. 2021 Jun 17 [cited 2024 Jan 29];12(6):2372–86. Available from:
  5. Crha I, Hrubá D, Ventruba P, Fiala J, Totusek J, Visnová H. Ascorbic acid and infertility treatment. Cent Eur J Public Health [Internet]. 2003 Jun 17 [cited 2024 Jan 29];11(2):63–7. Available from:
  6.  Zhou X, Shi H, Zhu S, Wang H, Sun S. Effects of vitamin E and vitamin C on male infertility: a meta-analysis. Int Urol Nephrol [Internet]. 2022 Aug [cited 2024 Jan 29];54(8):1793–805. Available from:
  7.  Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Use of multivitamins, intake of B vitamins, and risk of ovulatory infertility. Fertility and Sterility [Internet]. 2008 Mar [cited 2024 Jan 29];89(3):668–76. Available from:
  8. Gaskins AJ, Chiu YH, Williams PL, Ford JB, Toth TL, Hauser R, et al. Association between serum folate and vitamin B-12 and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [Internet]. 2015 Oct [cited 2024 Jan 29];102(4):943–50. Available from: 
  9. Miraglia N, Dehay E. Folate supplementation in fertility and pregnancy: the advantages of (6s)5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Altern Ther Health Med [Internet]. 2022 May [cited 2024 Jan 29];28(4):12–7. Available from:
  10. Fallah A, Mohammad-Hasani A, Colagar AH. Zinc is an essential element for male fertility: a review of zn roles in men’s health, germination, sperm quality, and fertilization. J Reprod Infertil [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2024 Jan 29];19(2):69–81. Available from:
  11. Garner TB, Hester JM, Carothers A, Diaz FJ. Role of zinc in female reproduction. Biol Reprod [Internet]. 2021 Feb 17 [cited 2024 Jan 29];104(5):976–94. Available from:
  12. Dahlen CR, Reynolds LP, Caton JS. Selenium supplementation and pregnancy outcomes. Front Nutr [Internet]. 2022 Oct 31 [cited 2024 Jan 29];9:1011850. Available from:
  13. Pieczyńska J, Grajeta H. The role of selenium in human conception and pregnancy. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology [Internet]. 2015 Jan 1 [cited 2024 Jan 29];29:31–8. Available from:
  14. Gabrielsen JS, Lamb DJ, Lipshultz LI. Iron and a man’s reproductive health: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Curr Urol Rep [Internet]. 2018 Aug [cited 2024 Jan 29];19(8):60. Available from:
  15. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Iron intake and risk of ovulatory infertility: Obstetrics & Gynecology [Internet]. 2006 Nov [cited 2024 Jan 29];108(5):1145–52. Available from:
This content is purely informational and isn’t medical guidance. It shouldn’t replace professional medical counsel. Always consult your physician regarding treatment risks and benefits. See our editorial standards for more details.

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Fatima Zehra

M. Phil in Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Pakistan

Fatima is a Pharmacist and Freelance Medical Writer with working experience in Pharmaceutical,
Hospital and Community Sector. She is passionate to educate people about health care. She has a
great interest to communicate complex scientific information to general audience using her
experience and writing skill. presents all health information in line with our terms and conditions. It is essential to understand that the medical information available on our platform is not intended to substitute the relationship between a patient and their physician or doctor, as well as any medical guidance they offer. Always consult with a healthcare professional before making any decisions based on the information found on our website.
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