What Is Gas Gangrene

Gas gangrene can be a frightening and potentially life-threatening condition, but understanding its causes, symptoms, and treatment options is key to managing and overcoming it. It is essential to recognize the signs and symptoms promptly and seek immediate medical attention to ensure timely treatment and minimise complications. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and risk factors associated with gas gangrene.

Read on to gain a deeper understanding of gas gangrene and how it can be managed effectively. Additionally, we will address common questions and concerns about prevention, the prevalence of gas gangrene, who is at risk, and when to seek medical attention.


Gas gangrene is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition characterised by a bacterial infection that rapidly destroys tissues and produces gas within the affected area. It is primarily caused by certain bacteria, most commonly Clostridium perfringens, entering the body through a wound, injury, or surgical incision. This anaerobic environment allows the bacteria to multiply and release toxins, leading to tissue damage and the characteristic symptoms of gas gangrene.1

Tissue death due to a lack of blood flow characterises the deadly medical condition known as Gangrene. It can spread to any area of the body, but it often begins in the extremities. The lack of blood flow to an area (gangrene) might be the result of an accident, an infection, or a chronic illness. Infection of such gangrene wounds, by gas producing anaerobic bacteria is called Gas Gangrene.2

Gas gangrene is often associated with traumatic injuries, such as deep puncture wounds, compound fractures, or surgical wounds, which provide an entry point for the bacteria. The infection spreads quickly, affecting nearby tissues and causing severe pain, swelling, and redness. One of the distinguishing features of gas gangrene is the presence of gas bubbles, which can be felt as a crackling sensation under the skin.1

Causes of gas gangrene

Gas gangrene is primarily caused by the infection of certain bacteria, most commonly Clostridium perfringens, which are naturally present in the environment and the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The following factors contribute to the development of gas gangrene:

  • Traumatic Injuries: Gas gangrene often occurs as a result of traumatic injuries that provide a pathway for the bacteria to enter the body. Deep puncture wounds, such as those caused by nails, bullets, or animal bites, create an anaerobic environment, allowing the bacteria to multiply and thrive
  • Surgical Procedures: Surgical wounds, especially those involving extensive tissue damage, provide an opportunity for bacteria to invade and cause infection
  • Ischemic or Necrotic Tissues: Tissues with poor blood supply or compromised circulation, such as those affected by peripheral arterial disease or frostbite, are more susceptible to infection by anaerobic bacteria like Clostridium perfringens
  • Contaminated Objects or Substances: Direct contact with contaminated objects or substances, such as soil, dirt, or decaying organic matter, can introduce the bacteria into the body
  • Poor Hygiene: Inadequate wound care, improper cleansing of wounds, and lack of proper hygiene practices can contribute to the development of gas gangrene
  • Underlying Health Conditions:Individuals with poorly controlled diabetes are particularly susceptible due to impaired immune function and compromised blood flow to the extremities. Conditions that weaken the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or long-term use of immunosuppressive medications, can also increase the risk of infection

Clostridium perfringens is the most common bacteria associated with gas gangrene, other species of Clostridium, such as Clostridium septicum and Clostridium novyi, can also cause similar infections. These bacteria thrive in environments devoid of oxygen, such as deep wounds with tissue necrosis, and rapidly multiply, producing toxins that lead to tissue destruction and gas formation.2,3

Signs and symptoms of gas gangrene

Gas gangrene manifests with specific symptoms and signs that point to a serious infection.Common indications and symptoms of gas gangrene include the following:

Pain: At the infection site, gas gangrene is characterised by excruciating pain that never stops. The pain often worsens quickly as the infection spreads, and at first it may seem out of proportion to the size of the cut or lesion.

Swelling and Redness: The area that is infected often shows severe swelling and redness. The tissues nearby could seem swollen, indicating an inflammatory reaction to the illness.

Brownish Fluid-Filled Blisters: As the infection spreads, fluid-filled blisters may form at the infection site. These blisters might be followed by skin darkening and frequently contain a brownish fluid.

Crepitus or 'Crackling' Sensation: One of the defining symptoms of gas gangrene is a palpable crackling sensation beneath the skin brought on by the presence of gas in the tissues. When pressure is applied to the affected location, this crepitus can be felt.

Foul-Smelling Discharge: The bacteria's creation of toxic metabolites may cause the wound or infection site to release a bad odour. The discharge could smell rotten and appear purulent.

Gas gangrene advances quickly, resulting in fast tissue loss in the afflicted areas. It is possible for gangrene and visible tissue necrosis to develop, with the affected area appearing dark, blackened, or discoloured.

Systemic Symptoms: In addition to its local manifestations, gas gangrene may also present with systemic signs and symptoms of a serious illness. These include possible symptoms including fever, dizziness, loss of appetite, tachycardia, and hypotension, or low blood pressure.3,4

Management and treatment for gas gangrene

Treatment of gas gangrene must be rapid and intensive to stop the spread of infection and salvage as much tissue as possible. Main therapy objectives are to:

Surgical Debridement: Debridement surgery involves surgical removal of contaminated tissue to stop the spread of infection and restore the blood flow and patient's health.

Antibiotics: High doses of broad-spectrum antibiotics are given to eradicate the bacteria and stop them from producing more toxins. Antibiotics administered intravenously are routinely utilised, with the antibiotic of choice depending on the type of bacteria found.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT): Breathing 100% oxygen in a pressurised chamber is what's called hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). It improves tissue oxygenation, slows the growth of anaerobic bacteria, and has a healing effect on wounds.

As a form of palliative care, gas gangrene patients frequently need fluid resuscitation, pain relief, and close monitoring of their vital signs.1


Imaging scans, laboratory tests, and clinical assessments are all used to diagnose gas gangrene.The following criteria are crucial for diagnosing gas gangrene:

Medical history and physical exam: The healthcare professional will begin by acquiring a thorough medical history, which should include any recent injuries, surgeries, or underlying medical disorders. To assess the affected area, a comprehensive physical examination will be performed, noting any symptoms such as pain, edema, redness, crepitus, and tissue necrosis.

Laboratory Examinations: A number of laboratory examinations are utilised to confirm the diagnosis of gas gangrene. They might consist of:

Blood tests A complete blood count (CBC) is carried out to look for infection-related indicators like a raised white blood cell count. It is also possible to get blood cultures in order to pinpoint the precise bacteria causing the infection.

To see the damaged area and assess the degree of tissue damage, imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs may be requested. Imaging can also be used to detect gas in tissues, which is a defining trait of gas gangrene.

A sample of the wound may be taken for culture and sensitivity testing in order to pinpoint the precise bacteria causing the illness and direct antibiotic therapy. In order to do this, a tissue sample or swab from the affected area is taken and sent to a lab for examination.

Gram-Stain: To offer an initial assessment of the bacterial infection, a Gram stain procedure on the wound sample may be used. This stain aids in the classification of bacteria as Gram-positive or Gram-negative, which can influence treatment choices.

Surgical exploration: In some circumstances, a diagnosis of gas gangrene may need the use of surgical exploration. As the treatment progresses, the surgeon carefully inspects the damaged tissues, looking for recognisable symptoms including gas production, tissue necrosis, and an unpleasant odour,1,4


If not treated right away, gas gangrene might cause serious problems. These difficulties could consist of:

Septicemia: When germs enter the bloodstream, a severe infection that may be fatal results.

Organ failure: The toxins that the bacteria release have the potential to harm organs, resulting in organ failure.

Amputation: In extreme circumstances, substantial tissue damage may call for the surgical removal (amputation) of the damaged limbs.3

Risk factors

Risk factors for getting gas gangrene include the following:

Trauma or injury: Deep puncture wounds or open wounds offer a route for bacteria to enter the body.

Surgery: The danger of infection is increased with surgical procedures, especially those affecting the intestines.

Diabetes: Uncontrolled diabetes can reduce an individual's immune system's capacity to combat infections, rendering them more vulnerable to gas gangrene.

Immunocompromised state: The immune system is weakened by illnesses like HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy, or prolonged steroid usage, leaving people more susceptible to infections.

Abuse of drugs or alcohol: Gas gangrene risk is increased by intravenous drug use or heavy drinking.5


How can I prevent gas gangrene?

Maintaining proper hygiene, promptly treating any wounds with clean dressings, and seeking medical help when necessary are all crucial steps to take in order to lower the chance of developing gas gangrene.

How common is gas gangrene?

Although it is generally uncommon, gas gangrene can happen occasionally. It occurs more frequently in people who have weakened immune systems, suffer trauma, or have surgical incisions. The likelihood of getting gas gangrene can be considerably decreased with prompt medical care and suitable therapy.

Only about 1000 cases of myonecrosis occur annually in the United States. The prevalence is certainly higher in less developed nations with fewer access to healthcare and antibiotics, but the precise amount is unclear.1 

Who is at risk of gas gangrene?

Diabetes sufferers, individuals with weakened immune systems, those who have had surgery or trauma are more vulnerable. Abuse of drugs, especially intravenous drug usage, can also make people more vulnerable to gas gangrene.

When should I see a doctor?

An urgent medical intervention is necessary for gas gangrene. Seek immediate medical attention if you have a deep, dirty wound that exhibits infection symptoms, such as escalating pain, redness, swelling, or discharge. Additionally, it's critical to seek medical attention right away if you detect an unpleasant smell or gas bubbles under the skin close to a wound.


Gas gangrene is a severe infection caused by certain bacteria, primarily Clostridium perfringens, entering the body through a wound or surgical incision. It is characterised by rapid tissue destruction and the production of gas within the affected tissues. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and save lives. Treatment includes surgical debridement, antibiotic therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and supportive care. Good wound care, hygiene, and managing underlying health conditions are crucial in preventing gas gangrene. Immediate medical attention is necessary if signs of infection or gas gangrene are present.


  1. Buboltz JB, Murphy-Lavoie HM. Gas Gangrene. StatPearls Publishing; 2023.
  2. Gangrene [Internet]. nhs.uk. [cited 2023 Jun 13]. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/gangrene/
  3. Gangrene [Internet]. Top Doctors. [cited 2023 Jun 13]. Available from: https://www.topdoctors.co.uk/medical-dictionary/gangrene
  4. No title [Internet]. Pennmedicine.org. [cited 2023 Jun 13]. Available from: https://www.pennmedicine.org/for-patients-and-visitors/patient-information/conditions-treated-a-to-z/gas-gangrene
  5. Woon C. Gas gangrene [Internet]. Orthobullets.com. [cited 2023 Jun 13]. Available from: https://www.orthobullets.com/trauma/1067/gas-gangrene
This content is purely informational and isn’t medical guidance. It shouldn’t replace professional medical counsel. Always consult your physician regarding treatment risks and benefits. See our editorial standards for more details.

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Rida Peerzada

Msc Global Healthcare Management, University College London

Rida is a Physical Therapist, with a background in marketing and business strategy honing these skills through her start-up ventures. Rida has 3 years of clinical and nearly 3 years of marketing and content creation experience.

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